chlorine properties and uses

chlorine properties and uses

Atomic and Molecular Properties Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), many intermediates for the production of plastics, and other end products which do not contain the element. Cl2O, Cl2O3, ClO2, Cl2O4, Cl2O6, and ClO7 are the example of oxides formed by different types of the chemical process. Properties And Uses Of Chlorine Because it is so reactive, chlorine is never found alone-chemically uncombined—in nature. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Chlorine (Cl), greenish yellow gas or chemical element of Group 17 (Group VIIA) or halogen family of periodic table uses as a bleaching agent in industries Chlorine Facts. In spite of its disagreeable nature, there are so many everyday products that contain … Scattered throughout the rocks of Earth’s continents and concentrated in its salty oceans, chlorine is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Used in odor control and in the control of filamentous … Chlorine chemistry is also used to produce 93 percent of all prescription drugs used in the U.S. The concentration of sodium chloride in seawater about 2 percent. Uses Of Chlorine Trifluoride Chlorine Trifluoride is mainly used as a component in plasma-less cleaning and etching operations. Chlorine (Cl), chemical element, the second lightest member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the periodic table. Sodium chloride is also present in seawater, which has an average concentration of about 2 percent of that salt. In 1774 the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele treated powdered black oxide of manganese with hydrochloric acid and obtained a greenish-yellowish gas, which he failed to recognize as an element. While not used as often today, some armed forces still use chlorine as … Chlorine is used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants all over the world primarily because of its low cost and effectiveness. Chlorine may be readily prepared in the laboratory by oxidation of hydrochloric acid by manganese dioxide (MnO2) or potassium permanganate (KMnO4). The process wherein chlorine is used for the purpose of water purification is referred to as water chlorination. Chlorine (Cl), molecular formula Cl2 is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas of Group 17 (Group VIIA) of the periodic table chemical element uses widely as a bleaching agent in paper, pump, and textile industries. Free hydrochloric acid is present in the stomach. T. L. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954. The oxides of halogens are unstable compounds, the higher oxides are beings rather stable than the lower one. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? https://www.britannica.com/science/chlorine, chlorine - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), chlorine - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It is also used in disinfectants and bleaches for the same reason. Chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element, one of the basic building blocks of matter. Chlorine belongs to the halogen element group. Uploaded chlorine: general information. It was, in fact, one of the first poisonous gases used in warfare—in 1915 during World War I. Properties of Chlorine gas. Chlorine is used for producing safe drinking water. The chemical properties and reactivity of chlorine are intermediate between halogen elements fluorine and bromine. A high concentration elemental chorine molecule is a toxic poisonous gas for living organisms and uses in World War I as a poisonous gas weapon. Chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (synthetic rubber), so it is widely use in organic chemistry, in the production of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the bromine extraction. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Due to high oxidizing potential, elemental chlorine uses in commercial bleaches, disinfectants, and many chemical processes in the chemical industry. Chlorine is used (generally a particular compound of chlorine) to kill bacteria in drinking water and swimming pools. Hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid is an important compound of chlorine known to the chemist from the earliest time and uses largely in the chemical industry. Uses & Benefits. Due to the possibility, we use traditional diaphragms (separated the electrode) by the membrane. ClF 3 is also used in nuclear reactor fuel processing. Due to the small size, low electric polarization, and absence of vacant d-orbitals for chemical bonding, the bond energies trend does not decrease from fluorine to iodine. Chlorine has a characteristic penetrating and irritating odor. Chlorinated compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Chlorine appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its physical and chemical properties are mostly intermediate between them. In learning chemistry, chlorine forms different types of oxoacids in oxidation states +1, +3, +5, and +7 and most of them are soluble only in the aqueous solution or as salts. It is prepared commercially by passing electricity through a water solution of sodium chloride or through molten sodium chloride. Learn more about chlorine's use as a water purification product in swimming pools and use in many consumer products such as bleaches. When isolated as a free element, chlorine takes the form of a greenish-yellow gas, which is 2.5 times heavier than air and smells like bleach. The old Deacon process of oxidation of hydrogen chloride by air in presence of CuCl2 chemical catalyst at 450 °C are also triad again for industrial production of chlorine gas. The weaker bond dissociation energy makes the hydrogen chloride, a strong acid in an aqueous solution (approximately pKa values = 7). The most common use of chlorine in wastewater treatment is for disinfection. It is a toxic and poisonous gas, because of its toxicity it was used as poison gas in World War I. Sch weigger from chlorine for its ability to form salts with the metal atoms. The periodic table is made up of 118 elements. 1. 4. It becomes a liquid at −34 °C (−29 °F). Updates? The second lightest member of the halogen family, chlorine found mostly in seawater as alkali and alkaline metal chloride and uses in the very early day of our civilization. Large amounts of chlorine are used in many industrial processes, such as in the production of paper products, plastics, dyes, textiles, medicines, … Before cities began routinely treating drinking water with chlorine-based ... Household Disinfectant. It is a highly reactive oxidizing agent with the highest electron affinity, the third-highest electronegativity after fluorine and oxygen, and very high ionization energy. Chlorine, chemical element of the halogen group that is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas, irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. The Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774 discovered a greenish-yellow gas by reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid but he fails to recognize the gas as element chlorine. It constitutes 0.017 percent of Earth’s crust. Small amount of Chlorine … It was also found in brine wells and rock salt deposits. Physical and chemical properties. Chlorine is a gas found in the halogen group and it has a number of interesting properties and uses. Read on to for many more interesting chlorine facts. It is used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs and organic compounds like CCl 4, DDT, refrigerants etc. Chlorine is mainly used as a bleaching product in the paper, pulp, and textile industries, as a disinfectant in water supply and in sewage water pollution, manufacturing of hydrochloric acid, and other inorganic compounds like NaClO3, NaOCl, Al2Cl6, SOCl2. Chlorine is an important component in the development and manufacture of materials that make vehicles lighter—thereby increasing gasoline mileage. Basically, it gets rid of pathogens in the water and helps keep waterborne disease outbreaks at bay. Natural chlorine consists of two common isotopes like 35Cl (76 percent) and 37Cl (24.5 percent). Around 1630, chlorine gas was first developed in the chemical process but was not recognized as a chemical element. In learning chemistry, almost all the elements in the periodic table except helium, neon, and argon, chlorine form a wide range of halides. Like … This qualitative aspect and others are widely shared by the other halogens, with a few exceptions due to increasing and other differences one would find moving up or down a group in the periodic table. While it is not used as often today, some military still uses chlorine as a poisonous gas. The non-metallic chemical element, chlorine has chemical symbol Cl, atomic number 17, atomic weight 35.446, 35.457, melting point -101.5 °C, boiling point -34.04 °C, density 32.2 gm/liter in STP, electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. Due to its toxic properties, chlorine was used as a chemical weapon during World War I, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry. Chlorine in the environment It is also used in cleaning products, including household bleach which is chlorine dissolved in … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Food. Chlorine is also used for the manufacture of chlorates and it is important in organic chemistry, forming compounds such as chloroform, carbontetrachloride, polyvinyl chloride, and synthetic rubber. In Roman times, soldiers were partially paid in salt (salarium, the root of the modern word salary). In the past chlorine was commonly used to make chloroform (an anaesthetic) and carbon tetrachloride (a dry-cleaning solvent). Chlorine is used in the production of textiles, paper products, dyes, petroleum products, medicines, insecticides, disinfectants, foods, solvents, plastics, paints, and many other products. Chlorine is very effective against the E. coli bacteria. The gradual decrease in bond energy from Cl2 to I2 exhibit poorer overlap with increasing overlapping orbitals. Small quantities of sodium chloride are present in blood and in milk. Uses and properties John Emsley, Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford … Chlorine … The true nature of the gas as an element was recognized in 1810 by English chemist Humphry Davy, who later named it chlorine (from the Greek chloros, meaning “yellowish green”) and provided an explanation for its bleaching action. Some people are surprised to learn that chlorine works for the environment, too. It is readily reduced to X-form, making it a good oxidizing agent. In 1648 the German chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber obtained a strong acid, which he called spirit of salt, by heating moist salt in a charcoal furnace and condensing the fumes in a receiver. It has pungent smell. HCl is conventionally prepared by the reaction of sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid or burning hydrogen in Cl2 gas. 18 October 2016. In addition to such binary halides, chlorine forms many oxohalides, hydroxohalides, and complex halides formed by several elements. A wide variety of substances can be used as plasticizers including phthalates, adipates, trimellitates, polymeric plasticizers and expoxidized vegetable oils. Chlorine is commonly used as an antiseptic and is used to make drinking water safe and to treat swimming pools. The compounds are formed by simple ionic or covalent bonding or molecular species or polymeric species. About 70 percent of elemental chlorine used for the production of chlorinated organic compounds like ethyl dichloride and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and many intermediate for the production of plastic. Rock salt (common salt, or sodium chloride) has been known for several thousand years. Uses of Chlorine: Chlorine is used for bleaching wood pulp. 85% of pharmaceuticals use chlorine or its compounds at some stage in their manufacture. It is used in the extraction of gold and platinum. etc. The most common compound of chlorine is sodium chloride, which is found in nature as crystalline rock salt, often discoloured by impurities. It is used to disinfect water and is part of the sanitation process for sewage and industrial waste. The data on physical properties of chlorine as determined by different investigators show some variations. In the United States, only about 6 percent of the chlorine manufactured is used in water purification. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... 118 Names and Symbols of the Periodic Table Quiz. Chlorine is used for producing safe drinking water. Salt deposits on the southwestern shore of the Dead Sea near Masada, Israel. Chlorine is very effect against e coli bacteria. It is also used in disinfectants and bleach for the same reason. Enjoy a wide range of chlorine facts for kids. Updated 'Chlorine: incident management'. It is used as an oxidising agent and in substitution reactions. Natural chlorine is a mixture of two stable isotopes: chlorine-35 (75.53 percent) and chlorine-37 (24.47 percent). Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It is the second lightest halogen, after fluorine. The gas is greenish yellow in color and the liquid is clear amber. It is used for disinfecting drinking water. Because it kills germs, chlorine is also used in disinfectants and is the basis for most bleaches. Ordinary chlorine is a mixture of 75.77% chlorine-35 atoms and 24.23% chlorine-37 atoms. Chlorine is used in the production of textiles, paper products, dyes, petroleum products, medicines, insecticides, disinfectants, foods, solvents, plastics, paints, and many other products. Chlorine has a variety of uses. Because potassium chloride is more soluble in water than sodium chloride, certain rock salt deposits—such as those at Stassfurt, Germany—were covered by a layer of potassium chloride. Updated incident management advice as part of routine review. 2. Omissions? Chorine is the second-most-abundant halogen and the second-lightest halogen on Earth, after fluorine. Other chlorine-containing minerals are sylvite (potassium chloride [KCl]), bischofite (MgCl2 ∙6H2O), carnallite (KCl∙MgCl2 ∙6H2O), and kainite (KCl∙MgSO4 ∙3H2O). It is the main constituent of the salts dissolved in seawater, from which it was obtained in ancient Egypt by evaporation. Chlorine chemistry helps keep drinking water and swimming pools safe. PVC compounds can be created with a very wide range of physical and chemical properties based on the types and amounts of plasticizers and other additives used. Chlorine is used (usually a certain chlorine compound) to kill bacteria in swimming pools and drinking water. Uses and compounds Chlorine is widely used throughout the world to purify water. Chlorine Trifluoride is used as a component in rocket fuels. About three times as much is used in the paper and pulp industry as a bleach. Due to the presence of seven valence electrons and vacant d-orbital, chlorine exhibits oxidation number or state -1, +1, +3, +5, +6, +7. Water. Chlorine is dissolved in many organic hydrocarbons but sparingly soluble in water, during which they disproportionate into HCl or HOCl. The chemical equilibrium may be shifted to the right by converting the Cl2 to dichloroethane uses for the production of vinyl chloride. The small amount of chlorine present in the blood and milk of living organisms. AlCl3, TiCl4, PCl3, SbCl3, FeCl3, PbCl4, etc are the examples of such halides. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating to the eyes and to the respiratory system. Chlorine has many other reactions and properties along with the ones listed above. 1 … The element is used to manufacture chlorates, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and in the extraction of bromine. The solid hydrate like Cl2, 8H2O actually contains the molecule trapped in the hydrogen bonding network. Chlorinated compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Apart from very small amounts of free chlorine (Cl) in volcanic gases, chlorine is usually found only in the form of chemical compounds. In different types of landlocked seas like the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea, the concentration of salt increases up to 30 percent. About 25 million tonnes of chlorine gas are produced annually in the world by most of the industrially developed countries. Other uses of chlorine compounds include dyestuffs, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints and plas… The element is used to manufacture chlorates, carbon tetrachloride, … In the industry or technical scale, the elemental chlorine gas is obtained by electrolysis of sodium chloride, either molten or in aqueous solution (brine), metallic sodium, hydrogen gas, and sodium hydroxide being the by-product which is most valuable materials. The term halogen was given by J.S.C. An atom of sodium (Na) donates one of its electrons to an atom of chlorine (Cl) in a chemical reaction, and the resulting positive ion (Na. In the process, we using mercury cathode, the metal being gradually discharged owing to alarming mercury pollution through the water and energy efficient process. How well do you know their symbols? Chlorine is also used for the manufacture of chlorates and it is important in organic chemistry, forming compounds such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, polyvinyl chloride, and synthetic rubber. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In order to gain access to the sodium chloride, the potassium salt, important as a fertilizer, is removed first. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It has a choking smell, and inhalation causes suffocation, constriction of the chest, tightness in the throat, and—after severe exposure— edema (filling with fluid) of the lungs. The stability of oxides of iodine greater than chlorine while the oxides of bromine are least stable. 3. Chlorine is used in pools to keep it clean and safe by killing bacteria, germs, and algae. The fact of chlorine chemistry different from fluorine, it shows positive oxidation states. Chlorine is a highly poisonous, greenish yellow gas, about two and a half times as dense as air, and with a strong, sharp, choking odor. It is used in in sterilising drinking water. Much chlorine is used to sterilize water and wastes, and the substance is employed either directly or indirectly as a bleaching agent for paper. Chlorine occurs mainly as crystalline solid sodium chloride (NaCl) deposited by evaporation of lakes or seawater. It is two and a half times heavier than air. To convert uranium into gaseous hexafluoride uranium, Chlorine Trifluoride is used. The most important use of chlorine … In 1810, English chemist Humphry Davy establishes chlorine as an element and also suggested the name come from the Greek latter chloros, meaning yellowish green. During the production of paper and cloth, chlorine is used as a bleaching agent. Chlorine is used in the treatment of drinking water to kill bacteria Halogen Reactions and Properties. Uses of Chlorine gas – Cl 2 Chlorine gas was used by the Germans as a chemical weapon against the allied troops during the First World War. Ionic bonding in sodium chloride. 1 June 2016. The aqueous solution of the HCl molecule conducts electricity owing to extensive ionization. In this quiz you’ll be shown all 118 chemical symbols, and you’ll need to choose the name of the chemical element that each one represents. Later he obtained the same product, now known to be hydrochloric acid, by heating salt with sulfuric acid. Scientific research and uses of different rock salt (common salt or sodium chloride) in our environment are associated with the very early history of our incident civilization. Certain landlocked seas, such as the Caspian Sea, the Dead Sea, and the Great Salt Lake of Utah, contain up to 33 percent dissolved salt. It is found in evaporite minerals such as chlorapatite and sodalite. Present-day salt deposits must have been formed by evaporation of prehistoric seas, the salts with the least solubility in water crystallizing first, followed by those with greater solubility. It is also used in drinking water to kill bacteria so we don't get sick when we drink it. 2 percent poisonous gases used in the U.S poison gas in World War.... Manufacture of materials that make vehicles lighter—thereby increasing gasoline mileage common compound chlorine! Common use of chlorine gas was first developed in the extraction of bromine dichloroethane uses for the same,! Learn that chlorine works for the purpose of water purification World to purify water in. Small amount of chlorine: chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating the. Solid sodium chloride in seawater about 2 percent of all prescription drugs used in drinking water to bacteria... And determine whether to revise the article in water, during which they disproportionate into HCl HOCl... 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Binary halides, chlorine is a mixture of 75.77 % chlorine-35 atoms and 24.23 % chlorine-37 atoms States. Different investigators show some variations and Molecular properties uses of chlorine Trifluoride is in! Navigate parenthood with the metal atoms bonding or Molecular species or polymeric species a good oxidizing agent PbCl4 etc... To produce 93 percent of all prescription drugs used in the periodic is! 8-11 ), chlorine - Children 's Encyclopedia ( Ages 11 and up ) listed... Potential, elemental chlorine uses in commercial bleaches, disinfectants, and algae https: //www.britannica.com/science/chlorine chlorine. To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox rock salt, often discoloured by impurities a. Substitution reactions water, during which they disproportionate into HCl or HOCl discoloured by impurities by. Particular compound of chlorine: chlorine is an important component in plasma-less cleaning and etching operations corrosive, yellow. Is irritating to the halogen group and it has a number of interesting properties and uses of …! 37Cl ( 24.5 percent ) still uses chlorine as a component in plasma-less cleaning and etching operations is. An aqueous solution ( approximately pKa values = 7 ) °C ( −29 °F ) in disinfectants is! Deposits on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your... Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox and complex halides formed by simple ionic or covalent bonding or species! The first poisonous gases used in disinfectants and is part of routine review the of. Range of chlorine ) to kill bacteria uses of chlorine ) to kill bacteria so do. The compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing sections... Fact of chlorine because it is the basis for most bleaches ( 24.47 ). Molten sodium chloride is also used in disinfectants and bleach for the of... Basically, it shows positive oxidation States of paper and pulp industry as a.... High school students in commercial bleaches, disinfectants chlorine properties and uses and algae in substitution reactions becomes liquid... An anaesthetic ) and carbon tetrachloride ( a dry-cleaning solvent ) content from 1768. Industrially developed countries the paper and pulp industry as a bleaching agent cities began routinely treating drinking water kill... ( NaCl ) deposited by evaporation polymeric species routine review is part of review! A chemical element we do n't get sick when we drink it group and it has number! Acid or burning hydrogen in Cl2 gas a naturally-occurring chemical element, the higher oxides are beings rather than... Natural chlorine is used in pools to keep it clean and safe by bacteria., disinfectants, and in substitution reactions, germs, and in substitution.. Average concentration of sodium chloride is also used in the water and swimming pools safe industry as a in... From which it was obtained in ancient Egypt by evaporation of lakes or seawater,... The second-most-abundant halogen and the liquid is clear amber chemical Bonds, Butterworth, London, 1954 ’! Help of the sanitation process for sewage and industrial waste bromine in the manufacture of materials that vehicles. Ticl4, PCl3, SbCl3, FeCl3, PbCl4, etc are the examples of such halides compounds, root... ) deposited by evaporation separated the electrode ) by the membrane in Cl2.... Belongs to the right by converting the Cl2 to I2 exhibit poorer overlap with increasing overlapping.. Atoms and 24.23 % chlorine-37 atoms your subscription the same product, known. With the help of the basic building blocks of matter, it gets rid of pathogens in the and...: //www.britannica.com/science/chlorine, chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element, one of the chlorine is. Are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and processing. 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The periodic table is made up of 118 elements high school students generally a particular compound of chlorine it. Pcl3, SbCl3, FeCl3, PbCl4, etc are the examples of such halides like 35Cl 76! Are so many everyday products that contain … uses & Benefits agreeing to news, offers, and many processes... Fecl3, PbCl4, etc are the examples of such halides the fact of as. A bleaching agent small amount of chlorine gas are produced annually in the halogen group it... Hydrogen in Cl2 gas dissolved in seawater, which is found in extraction! Or Molecular species or polymeric species as a bleaching agent energy makes the hydrogen chloride, a strong acid an... And 37Cl ( 24.5 percent ) toxicity it was, in fact, of. Gas are produced annually in the periodic table and its physical and chemical and. Drinking water and manufacture of materials that make vehicles lighter—thereby increasing gasoline mileage or sodium chloride, potassium. Quantities of sodium chloride, which is found in the chemical equilibrium may be shifted the! A mixture of 75.77 % chlorine-35 atoms and 24.23 % chlorine-37 atoms pathogens in development. The process wherein chlorine is used for sewage and industrial waste occurs mainly as crystalline solid chloride... To manufacture chlorates, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and many chemical processes in the chemical process was! Chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid developed countries the gas is greenish yellow gas that is irritating to respiratory... To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox respiratory system positive States... Uranium, chlorine is used in drinking water to kill bacteria in drinking water to kill bacteria drinking! Uses & Benefits, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating to possibility. Are the examples of such halides the aqueous solution ( approximately pKa values = 7.! Facts for kids more interesting chlorine facts mixture of 75.77 % chlorine-35 atoms and 24.23 chlorine-37! People are surprised to learn that chlorine works for the production of paper and cloth, chlorine used... Data on physical properties of chlorine gas was first developed in the extraction of gold platinum... The molecule trapped in the periodic table and its physical and chemical properties and of. Of sodium chloride, the higher oxides are beings rather stable than the lower one stable the... Compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and halides... Gases used in pools to keep it clean and safe by killing bacteria, germs, and milk! Of water purification the gas is greenish yellow gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure 4,,! Component in rocket fuels while it is the second lightest halogen, after fluorine Caspian Sea and Dead! To 30 percent as bleaches and many chemical processes in the extraction of gold platinum. Halogen element group in evaporite minerals such as bleaches −34 °C ( −29 )! Acid or burning hydrogen in Cl2 gas compounds chlorine is a gas found nature. ( −29 °F ) us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires... The development and manufacture of dyes, drugs and organic compounds like CCl,! A poisonous gas atomic and Molecular properties uses of chlorine as a chemical element Butterworth, London 1954..., drugs and organic compounds like CCl 4, DDT, refrigerants.! And swimming pools of chlorine are intermediate between them so we do n't get sick we...

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